4120. A natural person having the capacity to contract may execute
a power of attorney.
4121. A power of attorney is legally sufficient if all of the
following requirements are satisfied:
(a) The power of attorney contains the date of its execution.
(b) The power of attorney is signed either (1) by the principal or
(2) in the principal's name by another adult in the principal's
presence and at the principal's direction.
(c) The power of attorney is either (1) acknowledged before a
notary public or (2) signed by at least two witnesses who satisfy the
requirements of Section 4122.
4122. If the power of attorney is signed by witnesses, as provided
in Section 4121, the following requirements shall be satisfied:
(a) The witnesses shall be adults.
(b) The attorney-in-fact may not act as a witness.
(c) Each witness signing the power of attorney shall witness
either the signing of the instrument by the principal or the
principal's acknowledgment of the signature or the power of attorney.
4123. (a) In a power of attorney under this division, a principal
may grant authority to an attorney-in-fact to act on the principal's
behalf with respect to all lawful subjects and purposes or with
respect to one or more express subjects or purposes. The
attorney-in-fact may be granted authority with regard to the
principal's property, personal care, or any other matter.
(b) With regard to property matters, a power of attorney may grant
authority to make decisions concerning all or part of the principal'
s real and personal property, whether owned by the principal at the
time of the execution of the power of attorney or thereafter acquired
or whether located in this state or elsewhere, without the need for
a description of each item or parcel of property.
(c) With regard to personal care, a power of attorney may grant
authority to make decisions relating to the personal care of the
principal, including, but not limited to, determining where the
principal will live, providing meals, hiring household employees,
providing transportation, handling mail, and arranging recreation and
4124. A durable power of attorney is a power of attorney by which a
principal designates another person as attorney-in-fact in writing
and the power of attorney contains any of the following statements:
(a) "This power of attorney shall not be affected by subsequent
incapacity of the principal."
(b) "This power of attorney shall become effective upon the
incapacity of the principal."
(c) Similar words showing the intent of the principal that the
authority conferred shall be exercisable notwithstanding the
principal's subsequent incapacity.
4125. All acts done by an attorney-in-fact pursuant to a durable
power of attorney during any period of incapacity of the principal
have the same effect and inure to the benefit of and bind the
principal and the principal's successors in interest as if the
principal had capacity.
4126. (a) A principal may nominate, by a durable power of attorney,
a conservator of the person or estate or both, or a guardian of the
person or estate or both, for consideration by the court if
protective proceedings for the principal's person or estate are
(b) If the protective proceedings are conservatorship proceedings
in this state, the nomination has the effect provided in Section 1810
and the court shall give effect to the most recent writing executed
in accordance with Section 1810, whether or not the writing is a
durable power of attorney.
4127. Unless a power of attorney states a time of termination, the
authority of the attorney-in-fact is exercisable notwithstanding any
lapse of time since execution of the power of attorney.
4128. (a) Subject to subdivision (b), a printed form of a durable
power of attorney that is sold or otherwise distributed in this state
for use by a person who does not have the advice of legal counsel
shall contain, in not less than 10-point boldface type or a
reasonable equivalent thereof, the following warning statements:
Notice to Person Executing Durable Power of Attorney
A durable power of attorney is an important legal document. By
signing the durable power of attorney, you are authorizing another
person to act for you, the principal. Before you sign this durable
power of attorney, you should know these important facts:
Your agent (attorney-in-fact) has no duty to act unless you and
your agent agree otherwise in writing.
This document gives your agent the powers to manage, dispose of,
sell, and convey your real and personal property, and to use your
property as security if your agent borrows money on your behalf. This
document does not give your agent the power to accept or receive any
of your property, in trust or otherwise, as a gift, unless you
specifically authorize the agent to accept or receive a gift.
Your agent will have the right to receive reasonable payment for
services provided under this durable power of attorney unless you
provide otherwise in this power of attorney.
The powers you give your agent will continue to exist for your
entire lifetime, unless you state that the durable power of attorney
will last for a shorter period of time or unless you otherwise
terminate the durable power of attorney. The powers you give your
agent in this durable power of attorney will continue to exist even
if you can no longer make your own decisions respecting the
management of your property.
You can amend or change this durable power of attorney only by
executing a new durable power of attorney or by executing an
amendment through the same formalities as an original. You have the
right to revoke or terminate this durable power of attorney at any
time, so long as you are competent.
This durable power of attorney must be dated and must be
acknowledged before a notary public or signed by two witnesses. If it
is signed by two witnesses, they must witness either (1) the signing
of the power of attorney or (2) the principal's signing or
acknowledgment of his or her signature. A durable power of attorney
that may affect real property should be acknowledged before a notary
public so that it may easily be recorded.
You should read this durable power of attorney carefully. When
effective, this durable power of attorney will give your agent the
right to deal with property that you now have or might acquire in the
future. The durable power of attorney is important to you. If you do
not understand the durable power of attorney, or any provision of
it, then you should obtain the assistance of an attorney or other
Notice to Person Accepting the Appointment as
By acting or agreeing to act as the agent (attorney-in-fact) under
this power of attorney you assume the fiduciary and other legal
responsibilities of an agent. These responsibilities include:
1. The legal duty to act solely in the interest of the principal
and to avoid conflicts of interest.
2. The legal duty to keep the principal's property separate and
distinct from any other property owned or controlled by you.
You may not transfer the principal's property to yourself without
full and adequate consideration or accept a gift of the principal's
property unless this power of attorney specifically authorizes you to
transfer property to yourself or accept a gift of the principal's
property. If you transfer the principal's property to yourself
without specific authorization in the power of attorney, you may be
prosecuted for fraud and/or embezzlement. If the principal is 65
years of age or older at the time that the property is transferred to
you without authority, you may also be prosecuted for elder abuse
under Penal Code Section 368. In addition to criminal prosecution,
you may also be sued in civil court.
I have read the foregoing notice and I understand the legal and
fiduciary duties that I assume by acting or agreeing to act as the
agent (attorney-in-fact) under the terms of this power of attorney.
(Signature of agent)
(Print name of agent)
(b) Nothing in subdivision (a) invalidates any transaction in
which a third person relied in good faith on the authority created by
the durable power of attorney.
(c) This section does not apply to a statutory form power of
attorney under Part 3 (commencing with Section 4400).
4129. (a) In a springing power of attorney, the principal may
designate one or more persons who, by a written declaration under
penalty of perjury, have the power to determine conclusively that the
specified event or contingency has occurred. The principal may
designate the attorney-in-fact or another person to perform this
function, either alone or jointly with other persons.
(b) A springing power of attorney containing the designation
described in subdivision (a) becomes effective when the person or
persons designated in the power of attorney execute a written
declaration under penalty of perjury that the specified event or
contingency has occurred, and any person may act in reliance on the
written declaration without liability to the principal or to any
other person, regardless of whether the specified event or
contingency has actually occurred.
(c) This section applies to a power of attorney whether executed
before, on, or after January 1, 1991, if the power of attorney
contains the designation described in subdivision (a).
(d) This section does not provide the exclusive method by which a
power of attorney may be limited to take effect on the occurrence of
a specified event or contingency.
4130. (a) If a principal grants inconsistent authority to one or
more attorneys-in-fact in two or more powers of attorney, the
authority granted last controls to the extent of the inconsistency.
(b) This section is not subject to limitation in the power of